In your evaluation summarize the natural course of the disorder, the drug action on the neurotransmitter systems in question, and the likelihood of short-term, long-term, and permanent positive and negative effects of drug treatment. Make sure to take into account the ethical dimension of this risk-benefit calculation.
Various mental disorders exist amongst children and adolescents. The effect on growth and development should be highly considered when prescribing medication to youth. Advokat, Comaty & Julien (2014) state mental health disorders are the chronic disorders amongst youth and if left untreated, the disorders are likely to continue throughout adulthood causing a defect in functioning (p. 507). For example, bipolar disorder may cause short and long term consequences affecting various parts of life including academics and social aspects as well as may even lead to suicide. Various types of bipolar disorder exist, but regardless of the type of disorder, it is common for other mental health disorders to develop. Although medications have existed for quite some time, second generation antipsychotic drugs are one of the most current treatment options. These medications assist in maintaining dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin levels in the brain. Antipsychotics mainly impact dopamine neurotransmitters which assist in regulating levels so the dopamine system is not overactive and reduce hallucination and delusion experiences. Short term side effects include drowsiness, decreased cognitive functioning, weight gain, tremors, tardive dyskinesia, and sexual dysfunction. Despite these effects, these drugs may assist with enjoying life and experiences such as interest in activities, increased motivation, taking care of one’s self, while reducing psychosis symptoms and suicidal thoughts. Since bipolar disorder is a continuous disorder, the use of medication will likely presume throughout a lifetime. Discontinued use of medications should be consulted with a physician. The risk and benefit of prescribing any drug should be considered. Health care professionals should evaluate the health and well-being of the individual and make good judgement based on the knowledge they know and what they feel is a good choice. Continuously making wise choices and decisions is critical for every individual.