University of California Los Angeles s Attribution Theory Essay

I need a 2 page report based on the following criteria, please read the rubric carefully .

The subject I have chosen is : The Attribution theory (Use Header 1958 experiment as example)

The following link gives you one example of this theory:

Please note that this paper is about an incident in my life that illustrates this topic. I’m a 21 year old male who lives in Los Angles and attends UCLA. You can be creative and make up an incident.

Page length: 1.5-2 pages (double spaced, 1 in. margins, 12-pt. font). Use Word, not .pdf.

Assignment: Describe an incident from your own life that illustrates one or more of the concepts discussed in lecture and/or the text. In what ways does the incident lend support to the concept? In what ways does it perhaps challenge the accuracy, validity, or generalizability of the concept? (if it does; it may not).

Writing tips: This assignment, though short in terms of page length, is not simple. It requires you to think deeply about the relevant issues. In your paper, you should offer your own opinion and/or analysis, properly supported by the course material. It is not adequate to simply quote large passages from the text or lecture and say “I agree with all of this” (what we call “lazy writing”). It is equally unacceptable to offer an “uninformed” viewpoint (i.e., one that does not display any influence of the lecture or reading). Note: In your paper, formal citations are not required. Also note: For this type of paper, it IS okay to use the pronoun “I” – after all, you are talking about what you did and/or something from your own life (which will be kept confidential, by the way).

Now for some specifics about writing style:

1) Avoid insupportable generalizations. For example, avoid: “Everyone knows that scientists are biased”; instead: “Many contend that scientists are biased.”

2) Paragraphs should include a coherent theme (usually introduced by a topic sentence). They are not simply a bunch of sentences randomly strewn together. If you are writing paragraphs that are either 1-2 sentences or more than a page in length, you should probably modify them.

3) Avoid imprecise language. For example, the verbs “to be” and “to have” should generally be avoided, in favor of more precise word choices.

E.g., avoid: “The subjects had an increase in obedience levels.”
better: “The subjects exhibited an increase in obedience levels.”

4) Avoid the use of a “naked” this. The word this should generally not be used to refer to an entire idea (e.g., “The reason they did this was because…”) but rather should be reserved as a noun modifier (e.g., “This experiment shows…”).

5) Generally, avoid the personification of inanimate objects. For example, researchers “study” phenomena; experiments don’t (e.g., avoid the following: “The experiment studied whether individuals would respond to a command to deliver shock….” On the other hand, one could get away with, “The experiment investigated whether individuals…”).

6) Know when to use that vs. which. That is used with “restrictive clauses,” generally not set off by commas, as in, “The class that meets at 4:00 has been canceled” (where we are distinguishing this class from every other class). Which is used with nonrestrictive clauses, generally set off by commas, as in, “The class, which included students from 10 different countries, always enjoyed lively discussions” (where we are adding some incidental information about a specific class).

7) Avoid “-ing” noun phrases (gerunds). For example, avoid the following: “I am unconvinced by Milgram’s arguing that the subjects were not harmed.” Instead: “I am unconvinced by Milgram’s argument that the subjects were not harmed.”

8) “Show, don’t tell.” For example, avoid sentences like, “In this paper I am first going to review the behavior; then I am going to demonstrate how the relevant theory speaks to the behavior.” Don’t tell me what you’re going to do – just do it! If your writing is clear, it should be apparent why you are telling me what you are telling me.

9) Use transition words to help the reader follow your train of thought — e.g., words like “however, moreover,” and “accordingly.” Note, by the way, that commas and periods go inside quotes (unless there is another punctuation mark “blocking” that position) and that “however” is not a conjunction and, when linking clauses, must therefore be preceded by a semicolon, not a comma, as in, “I thought ‘however’ is a conjunction; however, I was wrong.” Know, too, when to use single vs. double quotation marks.

10) Make sure your sentence agrees in “number” (i.e., singular vs. plural). For example, “Many of the subjects involved in the experiment has claimed…” is wrong.

“Someone signed their name” is also wrong. (To fix, use a plural noun, like “individuals”; or he/she in place of “their” — though don’t overuse he/she.)

11) Know the difference between affect (which can be a noun or a verb but is typically used as a verb) and effect (which can also be a noun or a verb but is typically used as a noun).

12) Know when to use commas, which are not simply (or even primarily) indications of when the reader is supposed to “take a breath.”

13) Avoid awkward phrases and imprecise language. (E.g., poor: “I think that the theory is right, and other people would think that it’s wrong.” Better: “I would argue that the theory is generally valid, whereas many others might contest its validity.”)

14) Use “because of” instead of “due to” in most instances. Use “I feel that” instead of “I feel as though.” Use “with regard to” instead of other related variants. Use “first” and “finally” rather than “firstly” and “lastly.”

15) Spell check — always.

16) If you are unsure whether you are being clear, ask someone else to read a draft. You don’t (nor should you) always have to follow a reader’s advice about how to fix a problem, but you should take seriously the fact that he/she came across a problem in your writing. At the very least, try reading your paper aloud to yourself to see if it sounds clear.

Remember good writing should “flow.” That is, the reader should not be constantly tripped up by sentences and/or thoughts that don’t seem to follow from what has come just before them. The same holds for grammatical errors, misspellings, and imprecise language, which too often force the reader to stop and figure out what you meant to write. Be kind to your reader!


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